Плаж Камчия и устието на река Камчия -Kamchia beach and the mouth of Kamchia river Bulgaria by Drone

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The Kamchiya (also Kamchia and Kamčija, Bulgarian: Камчия is a 191-kilometre (119 mi) river in eastern Bulgaria,[1] the longest river on the Balkan Peninsula to flow directly into the Black Sea. From its longest source, Golyama Kamchiya (Big Kamchiya), it has a total length of (244.5-kilometre (151.9 mi). The river Kamchiya proper starts from the confluence of the two rivers springing from Eastern Stara Planina, Golyama Kamchiya (itself formed by the confluence of the rivers Ticha and Vrana) and Luda Kamchiya (considered major source), flows eastward to the Black Sea and empties into it 25 km south of Varna, in the Resort of Kamchiya.

Running down through Eastern Stara Planina, the Kamchiya meanders through the Longoz or alluvial longose grove, and through the Kamchia (biosphere reserve), a UNESCO-listed biosphere reserve protecting the primeval forest from intensive logging and drainage that had decimated it by mid-20th century. The river mouth forms a sand barrier and often overflows its banks in the valley. The old synclines of the river leave swampy areas called azmatsi. The reserve is 40 km long (stretching throughout the longose grove to the river mouth) and up to 5 km wide.

The area around the river mouth is remarkable for its (frequently flooded) old growth forests of a riverine type, up to 450 meter-wide beaches with up to 19 meter-high banks, forested or grass-covered sand dunes, freshwater marshes, and marshy remnants of old riverbeds, cutting deep into the forest. The unusual coexistence of ash, oak, elm, alder and maple trees, sometimes rising up to 40–50 m with lianas climbing among the branches, creates the impression of a tropical forest, a real tangle of woods. The summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum) and several buttercup species (Scilla sp.), as well as ferns, grow in the river delta. One can see otter, deer, wild boar and wild cats among the 26 mammal species. There are ospreys, eagles, and up to 200 other bird species, including 56 protected ones, and 25 fish species, among other wildlife.


The mouth of the river, as viewed from the south from the Kamchia Biosphere Reserve. Note the spit which has been formed at its mouth.
The towns the river flows past include Veliki Preslav and Smyadovo in Shumen Province, and Dalgopol and Dolni Chiflik in Varna Province. The Ticha feeds the dam lake Ticha and Luda Kamchiya feeds the dam lakes Kamchiya and Tsonevo], which supply water to Varna and Burgas. Lake Tsonevo is also a preferred fishing spot for much of Eastern Bulgaria. The Luda Kamchiya gorge, which cuts across Stara Planina provides the easternmost of the three railway routes between northern and southern Bulgaria. The river valley is fertile, lined with orchards and vegetable gardens; much of it is irrigated. The lower Kamchiya is navigable for smaller motor boats.

Ка̀мчия (в античността на латински: Panisus, Панисус, старо име Тича) е река в Североизточна България, област Варна – общини Дългопол, Долни чифлик и Аврен, вливаща се в Черно море. Дължината ѝ е 46 km, а заедно с лявата съставяща я река Голяма Камчия, която е приета за нейно начало – 244,5 km (8-о място по дължина в България). Камчия е най-голямата българска река, вливаща се в Черно море, като отводнява почти цялата Източна Стара планина и малка част от Дунавската равнина.

Река Камчия се образува от сливането на реките Голяма Камчия (лява съставяща) и Луда Камчия (дясна съставяща) на 26 m н.в., до югозападния ъгъл на село Величково, община Дългопол. Протича в източна посока в широка долина между Авренското (Момино) плато на север и Камчийска планина на юг. По долината ѝ се прокарва границата между Дунавската равнина и Предбалкана. Приустиевите части на долината са блатисти и обрасли с лонгозни гори. Влива се в Черно море при курортния комплекс „Камчия“.
Площта на водосборния басейн на реката е 5357,6 km2, като на северозапад и север граничи с водосборните басейни на реките Русенски Лом и Провадийска река, на запад – с водосборния басейн на река Янтра, а на юг – с водосборните басейни на река Тунджа и реките Айтоска, Хаджийска, Двойница и Фъндъклийска, вливащи се директно в Черно море. Водосборният басейн на Камчия обхваща части на 6 области в България – южните части на Варненска и Шуменска области, най-северните части на Бургаска област, източната част на Търговищка област, североизточната част на Сливенска област и най-южните окрайнини на Разградска област.

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